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This report presents the findings of the impact evaluation of the project 'African Climate Change and Resilience Alliance (ACCRA) in Ethiopia (phase 2)', which ran from 1 November 2011 to 31 December 2016 as part of the Oxfam GB's global CHASE Programme Partnership Arrangement (PPA4) portfolio. The project aimed to enhance governance systems and climate resilience, and to achieve climate justice - fairness towards vulnerable communities affected by climate change. It was implemented by Oxfam in Ethiopia, the lead partner of ACCRA in Ethiopia. The evaluation is part of Oxfam GB's Effectiveness Review series.
Sanitation behavior change is a notoriously complex intervention. In the harsh, remote environment of the Ethiopian lowlands, this is particularly so. Community-Led Total Sanitation and Hygiene (CLTSH) interventions, while successful in Ethiopia's densely populated highland areas, have never been implemented at scale in the lowlands. We learned that in these communities, dominated by (semi-) pastoralist groups, that the operating conditions for effective, sustained behavior change are highly variable. A Collaborating, Learning and Adapting (CLA) approach helped the program team define, pivot and re-design activities that addressed project effectiveness.Our experience is drawn from the USAID/Ethiopia-funded Lowland Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Activity that works to accelerate access to improved WASH in three rural lowland regions: Afar, Somali, and Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples (SNNP). Mid-activity data review highlighted several disappointing results that prompted a program team rethink. With both the implementing team and USAID/Ethiopia interested in critical feedback to adapt their approaches, USAID Lowland WASH Activity adopted the CLA framework to address these challenges. Utilizing pause and reflect, strategic collaboration, adaptive management and M&E for learning, an intentional CLA process allowed for a virtuous cycle of learning to occur.While still too early to determine the full effect of the CLA approach on development outcomes, encouraging results have emerged. A stronger set of 'performance envelope' criteria allowed for better targeting and sustainable CLTSH interventions; adaptation of the communication strategy led to effective storytelling practices in local languages, and project insights led to the refinement of Open Defecation Free (ODF) certification in Somali to a more manageable village- instead of Kebele-level definition.
This background paper engages with issues of secondary education reform in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) since 2007 and uses the MasterCard framework of questions as a template for gathering evidence. The framework seeks answers in three broad areas of reform: curriculum, assessment/examination systems and national qualifications frameworks (NQFs). It specifically invited responses to the following questions: Curriculum- What kinds of curriculum reform have occurred in SSA since 2007?- How successful has the practical implementation of new curricula been?- Given the challenges, how can resource-constrained ministries implement curriculum reform?- To what extent has a/the new curriculum promoted 21st century skills (like creativity, critical thinking, cognitive flexibility and emotional intelligence), as well as employability and entrepreneurial skills? Assessment- How successful has assessment reform been? National Qualifications Framework - What is the status of implementation of NQFs across SSA?- Have the approaches to NQF implementation promoted learning and the acquisition of skills necessary for employment?To ensure greater inclusivity, and to solicit a wide range of perspectives, we have chosen to review as broad a spectrum of publications as possible. This has meant that we have included research papers that, more often than not, would have been excluded from similar types of reviews. These include graduate students' masters and doctoral theses; and research papers published in journals that are not widely recognised. The net effect of widening the pool of sources is that many more researchers from, and working in, institutions on the continent have been referenced or included in the bibliography. The evidence gathering processes involved six linked activities: x Setting the search parameters and undertaking an electronic search. vi x Reviewing the document titles and abstracts; and sifting and excluding nonrelevant documents. x Once the primary and secondary sources have been identified, using high frequency citations to identify researchers in the field for follow up processes. x Reviewing the wider scholarship of identified scholars to gather additional 'grey' literature. x Identifying case studies, based on the analysis of these preliminary sources. x Site visits and case study write-ups Two system case studies were selected for close analysis: South Africa and Ethiopia. South Africa was selected because of its experience of three separate waves of curriculum reform in the past two decades, the extensive documentation of these curriculum reforms and as one of the first systems in the world to have introduced a national qualifications framework. Ethiopia was selected as it represents a rapidly developing country in which secondary education is likely to play a key role. It was also selected because of its recent review of its secondary education curriculum and examination system.
International Media Support (IMS);
This report covers responses to the infringement of the right to freedom of information, misinformation on social media and the impact on public interest media caused by the Covid-19 pandemic with a human-rights based approach and gender-sensitive lens.As journalists on the frontline have supplied essential live-saving information to massively expanded audiences in need of reporting they could trust, advertising revenues have collapsed, leaving public interest media struggling to survive.The report features interviews with journalists from four IMS programme counties, Colombia, Ethiopia, Sri Lanka and Ukraine about the challenges created by the pandemic and case studies showcasing success stories from independent media outlets in Pakistan, the Philipines, Somalia and Zimbabwe.
This situational analysis is about school to work transitions (SWT) in the sub-Saharan African context. We focus in particular on the transition from secondary education to work, including both general secondary education and secondary-level technical and vocational education and training (TVET). Secondary education is often framed as a conduit into tertiary education, but for many youths it is not. It is the last step in their educational trajectory, before or during which they may make the transition to work. This study is about how to best prepare youth enrolled in secondary school to transition to work and navigate a pathway to an employment trajectory that eventually leads to improved lives. We aim to provide a framework to structure thinking around school to work transitions, outline the context, identify the scope and the gaps in the knowledge base, and provide recommendations to guide future programming and policy on school to work transitions
Women's Refugee Commission (formerly Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children);
It is widely believed that economic opportunities can provide women with life options, greater participation in decision-making and more equity within the household. As a result, they are assumed to protect women against gender-based violence, including sexual assault and exploitation and domestic violence. The Women's Refugee Commission* (the Commission) traveled to Ethiopia to learn whether this assumption held true for refugees from Somalia and Eritrea. The Commission found that refugee women generally provide for themselves and their families in three ways: participating in income generating activities within the camp; selling goods and/or working in domestic labor outside of the camp; and collecting and selling firewood. Women's attempts to make a living can put them at greater risk for gender-based violence, including domestic violence, attacks while collecting firewood and harassment by employers if they are engaged in domestic work. In addition, income generating activities sponsored by aid agencies do not significantly contribute to increased income for refugee women. Finally, refugee women do not often participate in training programs that will prepare them for opportunities to earn a living if they are resettled to the United States or elsewhere.Key Findings Without access to markets and real economic opportunities, women's livelihood strategies can put them at greater risk for gender-based violence.Most current income generating programs sponsored by aid agencies do not significantly increase the income of refugee women.The provision of clean cook stoves has significantly reduced a woman's risk of gender-based violence by reducing the need to leave the camps to collect firewood for personal use. However, refugee women who continue to collect firewood do so predominantly to sell, and continue to face great risk of sexual assault as a result.Key FindingsWithout access to markets and real economic opportunities, women's livelihood strategies can put them at greater risk for gender-based violence.Most current income generating programs sponsored by aid agencies do not significantly increase the income of refugee women.The provision of clean cook stoves has significantly reduced a woman's risk of gender-based violence by reducing the need to leave the camps to collect firewood for personal use. However, refugee women who continue to collect firewood do so predominantly to sell, and continue to face great risk of sexual assault as a result.UNHCR and its donors should continue to support gender-based violence "coffee talk" discussion groups, as well as other awareness raising campaigns that appear to be addressing the underlying norms that condone violence against women.The Ethiopian government, UNHCR and its donors must provide more support for the distribution of clean cook stoves and ethanol fuel.
Population Action International;
As global climate change unfolds, its effects are being felt disproportionately in the world's poorest countries and among the groups of people least able to cope. Many of the countries hardest hit by the effects of climate change also face rapid population growth, with their populations on track to double by 2050.Population Action International (PAI) and Miz-Hasab Research Center (MHRC), in collaboration with the Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI), studied which groups are most vulnerable, what community members say they need to adapt, and the role of family planning and reproductive health in increasing resilience to climate change impacts.The study was carried out in 2008-2009 in peri-urban and rural areas of two regions in Ethiopia: the Oromia region and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's (SNNP) region.
IRC International Water and Sanitation Center;
Self supply as a strategy for WASH is defined as "improvement to water supplies delivered largely or wholly through user investment usually at household level." The two research studies reported on in this paper examined self supply in rural Ethiopia, gaining insights on the performance of existing family wells, factors that affect the decision of families to build their own wells and the way they use them, and elements of the enabling environment that can be targeted to promote self supply.
Catholic Relief Services;
This is an evaluation of Catholic Relief Services' (CRS) Integrated Watershed Management (IWM) activities in Ethiopia. WASH was integral to these projects, though it was not the only focus. The six major components of the IWM projects were natural resource management; agricultural support and agro-enterprise development; multiple uses of water; sanitation, hygiene and health education and disease prevention; savings and internal lending communities and income generation activities; and gender and partnership arrangements. The evaluation finds that the program made significant positive changes in the lives and livelihoods of rural households. However, budgeting, beneficiary targeting, and planning for sustainability and phase-out could have been improved.
Family Health International;
This is a project report on interventions to decrease decrease HIV prevalence and improve quality of life for people living with HIV and AIDS (PLHA) by strengthening prevention, care, support, and treatment.
This report is the result of research by WaterAid in Ethiopia into the effects of poor WASH access on children. It focuses on children up to age 14 in Konso and Hintallo in Ethiopia.
Overseas Development Institute;
This report explores local water security in two different sites in Ethiopia, Shinile and Konso. This issue cannot be reduced to a single diagnostic such as measures of water use or presence of an improved source. The pressures of water security on livelihoods and household-level responses are discussed and local and national government responses are examined.